What are the Steps in Producing Zinc?

Comments Off on What are the Steps in Producing Zinc?

Much progress has been made in the extraction of mined resources during the course of extraction civilization and up to modern processes. Mining machines that are heavily loaded, sturdy, and modular have improved the value and efficacy of our mining operations. As an outcome, waste and hazardous chemicals have been reduced in the energy sector.


Conventional blasting, hauling and drilling processes are used to extract zinc ores from deep mines, which must then be processed. Zinc sulphide (also known as sphalerite), zinc silicate (calamine), zinc carbonate (smithsonite), and manganese and iron compounds (franklinite) are all found in the ores. Eighty percent of zinc mining sites are below ground, eight percent are open pit, and the rest are a mix of both.

To extract the ore, it is smashed first and then powdered to provide for the best separation of the minerals. A zinc concentrate typically includes around 55% zinc, along with some copper, iron, and lead.

Zinc smelting

The most typical zinc concentrate, zinc sulphide, is transformed into refined zinc during the smelting process by extracting sphalerite using the froth flotation method. 

Froth Flotation Method –

Processing the zinc ore to a powder form, blending it with water, pine oil, and flotation chemicals, and then stirring the solution to “float” the zinc to the top is how this method works.

Zinc sulphide is also used to treat secondary (recycled) zinc compounds, such as zinc oxide. Recycled zinc accounts for about 30% of total zinc production.

The Pyrometallurgical Method and the Hydrometallurgical Method are two ways for smelting zinc. The first step is the same for both: roasting.

Roasting –

Roasting is the process of transforming zinc sulphide concentrates into an unrefined zinc oxide called “Zinc Calcine” by oxidising them at high temps. Multiple-hearth, fluidized-bed, and suspension roasters are the three different types of roasters that could be used for roasting. During the process, the following chemical reactions occur:

2 ZnS +302 → 2 ZnO +2 SO2

2 SO2 + O2 + 2 SO3 

Electrolysis process

Electrolysis is a fascinating process that takes about 22 hours to complete. Electrowinning, a specific form of electrolysis, is used to extract zinc from the purified zinc sulphate solution. Leaching, electrolysis, purification, and melting and casting are the four steps in the electrolysis process. 


This process is driven by the following chemical formula:

ZnO + SO3 → ZnSO4


The cementation technique is used in the purification process to filter the zinc far more. Copper, cadmium, cobalt, and nickel, which then would interact with the process of electrolysis, are removed using zinc dirt particles and steam.

Pure zinc is placed on aluminium plates using a lot of voltage. The plates containing pure zinc are lifted from the cells.

The zinc is stripped away by machines, and the vacant plates are restored to the cells, where the process takes place again.

Melting and Casting

Zinc is melted down and formed into ready for sale zinc cubes weighing between 25 and 2500 kg.

Aside from that, special zinc casting alloys are cast by combining a number of different alloying components. Many pyrometallurgical processes include reducing zinc oxide with carbon and then extracting metallic zinc from the resultant solution in a carbon monoxide setting.

The Final Word!

The produced zinc can be used in a variety of applications, including building, transportation, machine parts, networking, electronics, and basic goods.

Zinc is mostly used to preserve steel against corrosion around the world. One of the most eco-friendly ways to extend the lifespan of a steel material by nearly 12 times is to apply a thin coating of zinc.



December 6, 2021 |

Solutions for product development

Comments Off on Solutions for product development

For the development of certain products, the specific properties of the raw materials are very important. The slightest deviation in dosage can already cause the product not to function optimally. Solids Solutions can help you find the right compositions. We specialize in particle and powder technology and are engaged in research and development in this field. If you get stuck in the development process, we can determine where the problem lies and look for a solution.

Determine BET surface with porosity measurement

The pore size of solids can be measured by gas adsorption. In most cases nitrogen is suitable to perform a porosity measurement, but sometimes a different type of gas gives more accurate results. Activated carbon, for example, uses argon or carbon dioxide adsorption. Based on the amount of gas that is absorbed by the substance, the BET surface area can be determined accurately. Determining the amount of gas adsorbed can be done in two ways. By means of a TCD detector or by the volumetric technique, with which slightly more accurate information is obtained.

Solids Solutions courses

At Solids Solutions, we are not only engaged in research. We are also happy to share our knowledge and findings with you. That is why you can come to our academy for courses and seminars. We offer various multi-day courses that are held both on location as well as in-company. The in-company courses are specifically tailored to the needs within the company. In addition, we regularly organise seminars on various topics in the field of particle technology. Please contact us to discuss your wishes and the possibilities we offer.
April 21, 2020 |
Vantage Theme – Powered by WordPress.
Skip to toolbar